Tillägg den 8 febr 2016
Multi-Cylinder Modular Development Engine The A48-3-16 shares most of the power cylinder with the A48-1 and in an effort to reduce the development schedule, many components are compatible. Similar to the A48-1, the A48-3-16 is designed for a peak cylinder pressure of 200 bar with overload conditions of 220 bar. The block was cast from compacted graphite iron (CGI).
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tillägg den 8 febr 2016
AND DOE FUNDS ENGINE DESIGN. You may remember that I was writing about an interesting engine concept a few years ago, early in 2011 to be exact. And now I can do it again.
It’s not a new design, actually quite an old one, but its potential to power trucks has not been explored in the past as far as I’m aware.
I first wrote about the opposed-piston/opposed-cylinder ’OPOC’ engine from EcoMotors International, based in Troy, MI and now owned by Chinese interests. At the time Navistar had just signed a development agreement with that small outfit to help bring the engine to market, but that came to naught.
Then I discovered another opposed-piston engine on the scene, this one called the ’Achates’ coming out of a company called Achates Powerin San Diego. It was a compression-ignition two-stroke diesel that aimed at heavy-truck applications, but it seemed to fall off the radar too.
Achates Power has in fact just been awarded US$9 million by the U.S.Department of Energy to develop a new ”disruptive” internal-combustion engine in partnership with Argonne National Laboratoryand Delphi Automotive.
This time it’s running gasoline, not diesel, but it’s still an opposed-piston design. And a compression-ignition design at that, claimed to yield ”dramatic efficiency and emissions gains” that demonstrate the capability to meet GHG and fuel-economy targets in 2025.
Funded by the DOE’s Advanced Research Projects Agency, Achates says the engine will yield fuel-efficiency gains of more than 50% compared to a downsized, turbocharged, direct-injection gasoline engine while reducing the overall cost of the powertrain system.
Achates, Argonne, and Delphi expect to spend a total of $13 million on the program. That isn’t really very much money in the R&D context so let’s hope there are other funding sources down the road.
“Argonne and Delphi have already shown on conventional four-stroke engines that the potential of gasoline compression ignition (GCI) is significant,” said David Johnson, Achates president and CEO. ”GCI provides diesel-like efficiencies in a gasoline engine without typical diesel engine and aftertreatment cost penalties. Our opposed-piston engines have demonstrated superior efficiency and cleanliness when operating on diesel fuel. Combining our… engine with GCI technologies will forever change the internal combustion engine market.
“Our OPGCI engine will dramatically reduce petroleum consumption and CO2 emissions, while meeting current and future mandates for low-criteria emissions in cost-effective, high-volume products that consumers will love driving,” he continued.
The three-year project will deliver a three-cylinder, 3-liter engine applicable to large passenger vehicles, pick-up trucks, SUVs, and minivans. Due to the nature of its engine architecture, Achates says this technology is readily adaptable to two- and four-cylinder engines that can be used in small SUVs, CUVs, and mid-size cars, as well as the heavy-duty pick-up market.
No word on opposed-piston gasoline engines for medium- and heavy-duty use, not surprisingly, but the diesel concept is still alive. In fact, Achates made a presentation at one of the Phase 2 public hearings this fall.
“By adopting the Achates [diesel] engine, OEMs can meet the 2027 goals with a solution that costs less than today’s engine,” he told National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and Environmental Protection Agency committee members.
But back to gasoline…
“Combining two very clean, very efficient, and cost effective technologies may well yield a new paradigm in engine design that could help satisfy the challenges of ground mobility for decades,” said Dan Hancock, president, DMH Strategic Consulting and retired vice president, GM Powertrain global engineering, and past president of SAE International.
Gasoline compression ignition uses high cylinder temperatures and pressures to spontaneously combust gasoline fuel without requiring spark plugs. Achates says its opposed-piston engine uses a two-stroke design to develop a flexible air-handling and scavenging capability, which provides the necessary high temperature for stable combustion even at low loads. As well, it says, the combustion system design uses diametrically opposed dual injectors to enable superior control of fuel penetration and mixture stratification for robust ignition and controlled in-cylinder heat release.
Argonne National Laboratory has been developing gasoline compression in a series of conventional development engines for nearly 10 years. Their expertise in gasoline compression, computational fluid dynamics, and engine modeling and simulation will be a key to the success of this project.
Achates Power videos can be seen on its YouTube channel.
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